The True Troyan War

 

THE TRUE TROYAN WAR

August 2014

The only true story that derives from historic research

… that may not suit the dreamers

 

 

       The Bard and the Millionaire

 

Once upon a time there was a war for a famous city ….’ This is how the story may have started in front of the audience who, some 8 centuries BC, having no TV , radio , books or other media, were expecting the bard to entertain them with strong emotional phantasies. No harm here … as children we ourselves have consumed with unquenched thirst stories of knights and buccaneers that lived some 500 years ago or more before our time ! That was exactly the case with Homer … he was such a bard: most probably having it as a profession , he was gathering people around and endeavored into the area of myths and heroes to make his narrations more attractive. The story he was telling have remained into the minds and mouths of so many bards who preceded him and were telling about a famous and mythic war that survived so vividly into the memories of everybody. Something like a kind of a World War deep into the Bronze Age around 1200 bc - while Homer was writing his flamed verses around 700 bc . He could not have possibly been an eye witness , neither of course a serious historian who was scrutinizing data

However , the myth can be some part of a real event which actually provides the bards with the material to start with. While they continue , later they add or change things to reinforce the drama , a crucial element to their profession. There is even a phrase that talks about the ‘poetic permission’, meaning that we forgive excess and added drama to poet stories that go beyond reality

No problem here. Indirectly as well , Homer’s popularity was the beginning of writing methodically the stories to be maintained and transferred to the younger bards and generations to follow. A thing that generated the Greek Written Language we later knew. There was of course a pre-Homeric Greek language but was less known and less popular to the masses. Language has been developed by necessity to keep track of Administration and Religion initially but mainly of Commercial exchanges and product distribution. This is why it was a specialized tool of the few that thanks to the bards and Homer in our case , writing became more known to the masses

That is a most important contribution to civilization but History has still a long way to go. Thucydides , father of History , could not have been less satisfied with any mixing of real facts with myths. And there is where the problem starts

                 

 

 

For years later , children in the delicate age of 8-10 were always fascinated by the Homeric stories that thrived even some 2000 years after their era ! There is nothing more motivating that the phantasies created into the young minds ! Such a boy was Heinrich Schliemann who was so often absorbed entirely by the pictures in his mind of these fascinating battles of heroes in shields , javelins and armor and the out of the normal personalities of these semi-Gods that fought the Trojan War. Eventually Homer’s book had become Schliemann’s own Bible ! The city of Troy was to him a reality. As a matter of fact , such a city was established some 5 centuries later than Homer by the roman emperor Augustus near the channel of Hellespont and there is an area that Turks , using an ancient name , call it today Truva

 

Anyway , Truva was not such a great city as it was described by Homer. And what a surprise : those who justified the reasoning of such a war were mentioning Troy’s strategic naval position , a unique maritime passage , they said , between the seas of the East and West Aegean with the Black Sea. They were never struck however , by the fact that Troy had no fleet , was not any important military naval base and was not known for its maritime power ! Besides , the pure explanation that the whole war was done for the sake of a woman seemed maybe sufficient to some while to most others seemed an unlikely reason , not to say … a ridiculous one.

 

 

 

 

Now , as fate would have it , Schliemann on his turn when at a mature age went after gold in USA. Later was involved with stock markets and became very rich – a true millionaire . This sprang into him the ‘crazy idea’ of going after his Trojan dream now that he did not have to care about making a daily living. Troy was not a legend or a myth to him and up he went to prove it. His fortune is true was sacrificed to this dream and for that alone Schliemann got the admiration of many. However , for years and years later true historians were in a mess. It seemed that all pieces were there just to prove that Schliemann was right and nobody was allowed to have any doubts.

His involvement developed into a sacrilege forbidding actually any true historic research. There were even people, supposedly historians , that tried to fit his findings to the legend. Until … some others started the classic methodology for an historian … that is searching for sources, which by the way were always existing. Most of what we describe in this article comes out of the work of Michael D. Wood and his work In Search of the Trojan War that became a BBC presentation in 1985. M. Wood did a thorough study of everything and visited all related sites, combining all known data without limiting himself to specific assumptions.

 

 

 

 

                                                                 

 

Schliemann’s glory , History’s shame

 

Back now to , Schliemann , who following the ‘usual’ existing notions about the possible location of Trier , somewhere around 1865 , went over to Turkey at the Hisarlik hills , not far from Truva , ready to excavate and find ‘his’ Troy. Why Hisarlik ?

Here we have to insist on an important detail : the first ever to link Troy with Hisarlik was the sailor Pedro Tafur from Genova in the 15th century ac. This was due to his own random observations looking mainly on old marble ruins existing there , which by the way were purely greek-roman of the 3rd century BC. Even Alexander the Great in 334 BC. visited the same place to have sacrifices on the tombs of Achilles and Patroclos which , never existed anyway , but we understand that the act was symbolic and related in no way to any historical truth.

There was surely a settlement at this place known even from the Bronze Age. So there was something to find anyhow below the surface but this is almost natural everywhere over ancient lands without exception.

Schliemann did identify a number of layers of this city in 1871 , one of top of the other , and was more impressed by the upper ones ( the 2nd layer ) who have shown the existence of big walls surrounding the city and had fire marks supposedly due to its destruction - as Homer had it in his book.

However , only the 7th deeper layer corresponded to the Bronze Age , but Schliemann ignored this ‘detail’. And that layer was indicating a kind of big village rather than a strong city. Schliemann went on spending a lot of money for digging and more digging hoping to find tablets, coins or vases with names like Priamus etc. but this never happened. This intensified the digging, very often using dynamite (!) , until the actual destruction of the site became more important than the findings. Archaeologist of modern times have severely criticized Schliemann as a destructor rather than a discoverer.

At least everybody will agree , to Schliemann’s favor , that his dreams were the only cause to emerge Troy from oblivion and turn the history light beam on it after so many centuries. 

                                       

 

While on the filed , however , at wits end , he came up suddenly with a quite different finding: A golden necklace and a diadem which automatically attributed to the Priamus property. That was THE very proof to him and went on around telling his ‘eureka’ story. There was never a name on these golden pieces and no proof that belonged to the Bronze Age - they were later identified as belonging to the Roman period actually. But Schliemann was already making fuss while at the same time some bad rumors were saying that these golden items were his own property or even bought from a previous British amateur archaeologist, named Frank Calvert, whom Schliemann does not mention in his works although they both had a long exchange of information on the site of Hisarlik on the same research. Calvert was actually the one who bought a part of this land to start first his own excavations and then advised Schliemann to continue working on this project !

Schliemann did exactly that but this time with an excess of ‘audace’ and a fair amount of luck. After getting established in Greece , in 1876 on to further excavate Mycenae, the city enemy of Troy and residence of King Agamemnon. Proving the existence of Mycenae and Agamenon would be sufficient , to his own view, to confirm that Hisarlik was the Homeric Troy.

But in this place the facts were known with a large number of links to the present because Mycenae existed always in modern Greece , has based its wealth on the Argolic Valley in the Bronze Age as is the case at present and had an immediate access to the sea by Nauplion , the essential naval base of the Achaeans. Besides , the first excavations have taken place already in 1841 , 15 years earlier , by a Greek archaeologist named Pittakis. However ,  the existence of  Mycenae partly only contributed to the affair of where was Troy located and if there was really a Trojan War

                                                                  

 

The past and the present seemed to co-exist and so it was rather easy to expect to find below the Argolic hills a significant part of the Mycenae Palace. And so Schliemann went on … only to repeat the same mistake . He found a golden mask over the face of a man’s mommy , possibly a King , whom immediately identified as … Agamemnon. There was no proof whatsoever but … Schliemann had his own ways. He was even pushed further on to search for the sister civilization of Mycenae , the Cretans , but he was not destined to complete this search.

H. Schliemann ca 1880

Another professional this time German architect and archaeologist Wilhelm Dörpfeld was actually to succeed Schliemann. He had a better method to time the discoveries using stratified data and he was able to identify through the ruins left by Schliemann the so called Troy 7A city , whose buildings were identified outside the limits of Schliemann’s Troy 7 city. 

There he did find an important gate and angled walls of a city that was well protected. The impressions were further deepened by the fact that much Mycenaean pottery was also discovered ! Dörpfeld, however , was cautious ! He has found skeletons buried under the ruins and assumed that it was rather the result of a huge earthquake and as for the destruction by fire or war he had little evidence!  So he just did just a small step forward than Schliemann , a step that a more professional Schliemann could have done himself if he did not use so extensively the dynamite

 

We have to mention here that very recently , in 2000-2004 , and some 15 years later than M. Wood’s presentation on BBC , another German archaeologist decided to continue again on the steps of Schliemann and Dörpfeld with the full co-operation and blessing of the Turkish government once more over the hills of Hisarlik and its surroundings. It was Manfred Korfmann who did not avoid the mistakes of Schliemann and he did not use the expertise of Dörpfeld. Having applied a rather disorganized registration of the findings he did not answer to any of the vital questions and his main ‘contribution’ was to identify the 7th layer of the Schliemann’s excavations as the real Troy thanks to a Mycenaean vase he found dated around 1200 BC and some pieces of weapons like arrow tips that he recognized as been also Mycenaean. A non-proof anyway as many of these articles were objects of simple commercial exchanges. The Turkish government though, honored him to the highest degree since from then on they could use his findings as enough credentials for … touristic purposes , having definitely fixed Troy in this area close to the beginning of the Dardanelles while UNESCO’s followed, to recognize the ruins as world’s heritage , although , very diplomatically , without insisting that these were the proven ruins of Homeric Troy. So that was the last step of the ‘hunt for Troy’ which only accommodated for the touristic rather than the historic objectives.

There followed as well independently now and then some studies for some details ( e.g. Trinity College of Dublin ) , for the size of the city and its population with some considerable successes which , however , could not throw enough light into the main questions.

Besides : Homer was looking at the Hisarlik Troy at his time in 700 BC while he was singing the story of his mythical Troy in 1200 BC . It is like as if Victor Hugo leaving say in today’s Paris would have mentioned in his ‘Notre Dame’ story with Quasimodo in Middle Ages , the Eifel Tower. Modern observes looking around present Paris would easily match what they see today with Hugo’s narration including the … Eifel Tower … thus verifying that the story of Esmeralda and Quasimodo is an historic fact! It is as silly as that .  It is unfortunate that history is dictated by such foolish means which nevertheless do excite the imagination of those exposed to them.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Civilization marched to the west. From probably the Pacific Polynesia to India , Asia and then to Europe. The Mesopotamian people and their neighbors were well advanced in Astronomy , Calculus and Writing. Their own writing was called the cuneiform or sphenoid one. A fast and easy way to write on clay , or wax , although this remained a symbolic language not a ‘phonetic’ one as was its later development. But this writing was enough to register administrative data like numbers , names , map points. Many of these tablets with cuneiform writing were found , organized and archived in Berlin. The first effort to check in detail these tablets came in the days of  … East Berlin ! The difficulty of ‘understanding’ between East and West made the research of those tablets impossible until some people decided to go on despite the difficulties. All of a sudden the Trojan affair was uncovered although the audience was not yet ready to accept the revolution ! There was no Helen or Achilles or the 12 Greek Gods to intervene on every occasion to control the fate of their favorites. It was purely an economic conflict , a fight for power between East and West and where surprisingly most of the mythical issues , like the famous Trojan Horse found some very reasonable and logical explanation. It was time for History

The Greeks existed as groups of independent cities and the most dominating of all those in the Bronze Age were the Achaeans or Á÷áéïß in modern greek , from the name of the northern Peloponnese part Achaia. They had most probably a Phoenician origin and it is proven that started as a colony of the Cretans around 2000 BC. Their clothes , art , shipping and commerce were identical between these people and the main naval base from where the conquering of Peloponnese has started  , was found recently in our days. The city , near Pavlopetri , was found into the bottom of the sea as a result of a huge earthquake. Its underwater ruins indicate today an extremely well organized harbor with large commercial stores serving a vivid sea connection between Peloponnese and Crete. Their language was not the same as with the later development of the Greek spoken around say 300 BC but some Phoenician derived words do stay alive in modern greek , like ËéìÜíé ( pronounced as limani  = harbor ) and Áíáî ( pronounced Anax  = the King ) and ÁíÜêôïñïí (pronounced as Anactoron  = the Palace)

Via the Aegean isles the present western coast of Turkey was full of Achaean colonies with very close ties to Mycenae. One can understand that commerce was vital as the various isles and lands around vary considerably in products and there is a strong necessity for exchanges, apart from the economic interest itself.

 

 

But in the Middle of Asia Minor or from today’s Iraq, Syria and Turkey the Hittites , or Hatti , were present. Brother race to the Assyrians and Persians they had created an Empire that was expanding to the west and south.  Hattusa (near today’s Boğazkale) was the capital city of the Hattis and was a very strategic point on the land axis East-West , some 150 Km east from today’s Turkish capital Ankara. Their founder King was called Priamarabush. It seems that the ending – rabush meant the King ( like ‘Ra’ in ancient Egypt ) or the Great. No doubt the Achaeans knew it and would simply name this King as Priama or Priamus , since ‘ - us’ was the normal ending for male names to them. So Priamus was a real King , the King of the Hittites

Near the Aegean coastline , Achaeans , Hittites and often Cypriots , Cretans and Egyptians were meeting for commercial reasons. The volume of goods exchanged and transported where enormous as proved by many shipwrecks discovered ever since. Seeds , oil , wine but also tools of bronze and vases were objects of commercial interest. The harbors of today’s Bodrum and Miletus , the ancient  Halicarnassus , where famous as well for horse and slave trade ! The last two seemed even more important since horses were used as a weapon in war chariots and cavalry while slaves were the main production tool of ‘industrial’ goods, like cloths , ropes and sails for shipping

It is interesting to note that in Pylos , in southern-west Peloponnese , a city that was flourishing in the Bronze Age and ally to the Achaeans were officially recorded in writing the names of 1700 slave women working uniquely on the linen production. The river where they were cleaning linen products exists till today and is called , in modern greek , Linaras River , a word directly linked with ‘linen’ ( linari in modern greek ) .  Most of these women were the result of wars or destitution and what strikes is that the origin they were coming from was also recorded clearly on the Achaean archives to be …’Anatolia’ or ‘Asia’ , a name given to what is today known as western Turkey. We can therefore say that many such workers were provided from the land of the Hittites. There were of course similar women slaves working around the main cities of Asia Minor and definitely many of them under traders who had close tights with Mycenae and were exporting to the west

So the actual economy of clothes , sails and ropes was mainly based on these women slave workers whose origin was mostly Anatolia

 

But the Historical Sources existed … and then there was History !

 

Map of the Hittites Empire , in red. The white areas are under the influence of the Achaeans – the yellow areas under Egypt.

You may notice that the Northwest and West-Central exits to the Aegean Sea are in white. The Hisarlik area , Troy in our map , was already under the Hittites influence while the Millawanda city and its surroundings were under the control of the Achaeans

A Google Map of today’s area of Militos , the Hittitian Millawanda

Some word etymology here that gives

                                                                     an insight to some origins :

 

We may note that the name Paris is often mentioned to be in Iliad … Alexander – sounds as Alaxandar in the language of the Hatti ! Very strange indeed ! How can we have attributed so different names to the same person ! Paris is the participle of an ancient greek verb Ðáñßïìáé ,  which means actually ‘The one who passed it’or… ‘escaped it’. There is a clear connection with the present verb ‘Pass’. That suits with the myth of his birth according to which his mother having dreamed about the catastrophe this child would bring to his city abandoned it on the hills to die but the boy was saved by shepherds. Alexander means something different : the word ‘alex’ is used in modern greek as a preceding word to indicate a shield or protection - like ‘para’ as in parachute , meaning protection against the fall (chute) . And furthermore the name Helen derives actually from the Dorian-Germanic language that influenced greek , albeit in the days of Homer only from the word for bright : hell = light colored, bright . This name was not existing at all in the Greek language of the Bronze Age .

 

Hector from the greek ‘Åêôùñ ( the sounding is exactly the same ) has its origin on the greek verb Å÷ù meaning I have , I hold , I insist to keep  …. therefore the Tenacious one ! Again the word that is lurking behind is Germanic , the very known Ich Habe ( I have ) . The Bronze Age greeks that heard the Germanic Dorian dialect had a tendency to integrate the antonym with the following verb , chopping the end that phonetically was not suiting their own accents. On the other hand the Dorians would pronounce their Ich more closely to Iech , as the Germanic dialects around the Mosel river still do . You may note that after many distortions and simplifications only the ‘I’ remained in the Frankish dialect and finally was transferred so in modern English.

           Thus as if heard as one word Iechhabe and chopped to Iechh … easily provides the sound of the greek E-ch-o for Å÷ù . It is funny to note that some mountaineers in Greece they still pronounce clearly the ‘I’ in front of today’s Echo heard as Iecho or Jecho.The same appears for the greek verb Åñ÷ïìáé ( sounds Erchome = I come ) the combination of Iech+Komme , Echkomme or Erchome (¸ñ÷ïìáé) .So , the name Hector does not belong to the Bronze Age but was existing in the days of Homer, whose words smell strongly of Dorian-Germanic. Remember as well :  ‘Nichta’ and ‘Kusse’ for Night ( Nacht in german ) and Kiss ( Kussen  in german ) that you find in Iliad. The Germanic influence is very clear but again none of these terms was existing in the Bronze age.

          What is the purpose of these linguistic highlights ?

They define the thin line between the real history and ‘added history’ or myth . All the Germanic-type names originate from the days of Homer but did not exist in 1200 BC. So they are ‘mythic’ or products of false-history. On the contrary the name of Priamus and Millawanda are real and historic.

 

 

 

The real (Hi)story

 

The cuneiform Hittite scripts, a purely historic source, go on with more of the story :

 

Priamarabush had a son , his name was Hittitaya. To this son he gave an order to go to a city called Millawanda. The reason was that there were economic frictions with the people living in Ahhiyawa. Note : All these endings – wa at the end remind us of the ending – ville or the same they indicate the land of the people in the preceding word. So Ahhiyawa meant something like Achaeansnville or the Land of the Achaeans. What is more important, Hittitaya kept a record of his track. He followed a southwest direction from Hattusa which would lead him to the area of present Izmir and Bodrum. More intermediate waypoints have been also recognized by the scripts on today’s map of Turkey that assure that this track did not bend to the northern-western part were Troy is located.    

Hittites populations around Ahhiyawa had previously complained to Priamarabush to protect their slave women from the Achaean trade. The Hittites knew all too well that their expansion to the west had to do inevitably with the annihilation of the Achaeans. This friction seems to have been there for a rather long period and at a certain point Priamarabush decided to check the situation and either come to an agreement or raise war against the Achaeans. Thus , Hittitaya was given the role of the Protector of his people and most probably the name Alaxandar ( = the Protector ) was so assigned, meaning the role rather than the name itself.

So economy , commerce and slave women were at the center of this friction and ‘The Protector’ was there to defend the Hiititean cause.

 

The scripts mention clearly that Hittitaya was snubbed by the Achaeans and he decided to react. So Hittites came by night and abducted an important number of the women slaves. This meant for almost all other mainland Greeks that the benefits from their colonies in Asia Minor were to disappear and therefore they had to react for purely economic reasons. There was not a particular Helen or other queen in this matter. The greek Kings were about to lose their assets in Asia Minor and they had to react with a war that gathered almost every kingdom of the mainland. The city of the fighting was to be the surrounding area of Millawanda that has an extended seaside to be used for the debarkation and the famous nearby river Meander was offering a good water supply for the invaders.

Hittitaya asked his father to send him help and considering the large extend of the Hittites Empire the Greeks soon faced quite a resistance which prolonged the war , although it is extremely unlikely that it went on for 10 years. The farmer greeks could not have stayed that long away , a 10 year war would have starved and ruined their own homelands. It is very possible that it was something like an affair of some months only. As for the huge armada of 1000 ships said by Homer must have been an obvious lie since the area of the golf in Millawanda could not harbor them all and what is more the number and transport of the supplies needed to sustain such a force were not existing on those days.  If we simply suppose that each ship at average was carrying some 30 people then to maintain abroad an army of almost 30.000 warriors is a severe problem even by today’s means and standards ! As to the extent of their harboring you may simply imagine any medium-sized golf you know filled with some 1000 yachts of today’s size and you will be overwhelmed by the comparison.

But , although Millawanda was not famous for big walls , the terrain was not easy to manage for the invaders while the defenders kept always the high ground. Yet , they had lost in the meantime all their sea exports and their economy was extremely weakened ; the war affair acted as a destructive blockade to the Hittites. At the same time it became a burden to the Achaeans whose aims were not achieved and disagreements and hatred took its toll on the invaders and this is so described even in the Homeric verses.

The documents refer to a speech by Hittitaya to the fighting Hittites as of the what to decide. Many preferred to stop the war who had developed to a heavy penalty. The rest of the story does not have to be a theatrical heroic attack for pillage and terror and is believed that ended up with a truce , were the Hittites had to turn back a greater number of slaves than those stolen from the Greeks and pay money for compensations for … war expenses , ensuring a free-trade for all in the future. Besides, the Hittites Empire did not end with this incident and there is nothing written pertaining to the destruction of Millawanda. No Hector or Kassandra were mentioned in the Hiititean scripts and even more Aeneas the supposedly father of the Latins was not there at all !

And what about the Trojan Horse ! Well Millawanda was an exceptionally famous place for horse breeding and trading - and was still so for centuries. Few charges of the greeks against the defenders happened during nights while most of them were hidden between groups of horses for cover. We have seen that often in western movies with Indians. It does not have to be a whole army within a huge wooden horse whose construction could not have happened overnight and thus ‘surprise’ the defenders ! Besides there was no real city capture in Millawanda

The horse was also a symbol of God Neptune , it is true , and it becomes more reasonable only in the Homeric story to consider that the Trojans accepted this symbol of their protector God, into their walls. Except that in the Bronze Age , the Hittites did not have the same religion at all with the Greeks and they worshiped Baal , not Zeus as their main God !! Quite a detail this one to be neglected by historians! In the entire length of the Iliad , Homer mentions clearly that the Trojans and the Achaeans were sharing the same Greek Gods …. But that was simply not a historic truth. One may say that some of these Gods were at a certain stage a kind of copy-paste from previous religions , eg : India and Assyria and Baal was the equivalent of Apollo , both Gods of the Sun and Thunder and deemed protectors of Troy but … there is no other element to justify the total commonness of all these Gods as if Greeks and Trojans were the same people. So the Troyan horse story never actually happened as said by Homer.

 

          Do the Hittites and/or Achaeans scripts mention Troy itself ?

 

Well this is really interesting in that the Hittites scripts do refer to Troy although on a totally different occasion. They mention a city called Wilusa ( heard as W-ilius-a ) on the northwest end of their Empire. Wilusa = W-ILIUS-a and there is where we discover the word for Ilius = Ilion  , the name used by Homer ! It was around 1270 BC and the Hittites are at war with Egypt ! It is the famous Battle of Kadesh , (in today’s Syria )  the first ever in history mentioned with war tactics of armed chariots – like a tank battle in the Bronze Age ! The Hittites called all their subordinate cities to send an army. Wilusa did not ! The good relations with the west , that is the Achaeans , and a loose connection with Hattusa , was rather the reason !

The anger of the Hittite King was vividly described in the scripts, with menaces of retaliation!  But that is all ! The scripts do not mention anything further ! We cannot exclude that there was maybe a war act against Wilusa by the Hattusa King or maybe a total destruction of the city but in any case the scripts remain silent.

 

As for the Achaeans the real puzzle for Schliemann was their written language, as there seemed not to be anything left in writing by the Achaeans. It was due to the work of the British Michael Ventris who was later to identify the common Linear-B semi-hieroglyphic writing of the Minoans in Creta that corresponded exactly to the Achaean writing. Although no such tablets were found around Mycenae there were hundreds discovered in Pylos , another colony-ally of the Achaeans whose king Nestor was a close adviser to Agamemnon in Iliad. From there we discovered the lists of the names of the women slaves from Anatolia working for the Achaeans. This element however does not mention Troy, it rather points to Anatolia’s Millawanda , confirming in parallel the scripts of the Hettites.

 

The Dark Ages that followed the Bronze Age

 

Civilization followed constant ups and downs . It also keeps on happening now.  The big cities of the Achaeans that took part on the ‘Trojan War’ ,Troy itself, the entire west coast of Turkey and even deeper the very Hattusa itself and Homer’s Golden Mycenae , perished after 1000 BC . Burned down to their foundations , looted and pillaged . That easily explains why the present upper layers of Troy in Hisarlik justify a destruction although these are not the ones identified as being the Homeric Troy ruins. At least it is true that Troy was , at some time , destroyed , but there is no serious historic link to Homer’s War.

But who was responsible for the ruins of the Bronze Age in East Mediterranean ?

The historical answer comes from the … Egyptians (!) who took notes , on their stone hieroglyphics , as they too had to watch and fight a storm of pirates that invaded the entire Eastern Mediterranean and looted everything ! Without any particular identification they were named as The People of the Sea and their true origin remains a question. The most simple one is that on those days no place was known to have such a strong fleet in the west as the Achaeans. These pirates could have been the remaining of the inhabitants of the big cities of Greece victims of decline , political instability and famine that ended up with piracy. Besides the destruction of the big cities of Greece was a result of constant wars between them and there was never any source to relate them with outside invaders. Most probably the populations increased to the point that the land was no longer able to nourish them , the political systems turned to tyrannical methods to further accumulate wealth for the big families and revolutions erupted almost everywhere. The strange thing is that the Egyptians do not mention any of the known names of the Greek cities  but that is justified by some researchers as the result of an abrupt disconnection of communications between Egypt and the rest of the islander world  due to the dominance of the pirates on the sea routes. Some historians speculate that the traces of fire destruction on the Bronze-Age layer of Troy could have been the result of The People of the Sea rather than the Hittites or anyone else.

 

Epilogue and Historic summary

 

So what is the real historic result until our days on the Trojan War :

 

1. The city of Troy existed but it is not historically linked with Homer’s Iliad and the Trojan War. Mycenae existed as well and was very closely related economically to its colonies neighboring Anatolia , known as the Land of the Achaeans

(Ahhiyawa) by the Hittites

2. The story for the Trojan War was based on the Achean campaign against Militos ( Millawanda ) around 1200 BC and was narrated for years and years ever since by the bards

3. Homer who lived about 5 centuries later has integrated this story into his own Iliad and ‘decorated’ the scenario with his own injected dramatic figures of heroes and Gods using examples and places from his own era. It is quite possible that Homer has seen ( if not always blind ) or was told about the Troy of 500 BC which he used as a model for his Troy in Iliad.

4. The only real historic reference close to those facts come from the Hittitian scripts in Berlin and the Linear-B tablets from Pylos which strongly point towards the area of 1200 BC found on the border of the economic interests of the Achaeans and the Hittites , and that was the area of Militos

5. The reasons for the Achaean campaign to Militos were due to the women slave trade and its economic impact on this West-East rivalry around the Aegean Sea in the Bronze Age

 

 

 

Sources :

 

·        http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michael_Wood_(historian)

·        http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/In_Search_of_the_Trojan_War

·        http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heinrich_Schliemann

·        http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frank_Calvert

·        http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthur_Evans

·        http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wilhelm_D%C3%B6rpfeld

·        http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michael_Ventris

 

 

Back to Home Page